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Drug Dictionary

Adderall (amphetamine and dextroamphetamine, mixed amphetamine salts): A stimulant medication designed to treat ADHD in both children and adults.

Ambien (zolpidem): A hypnotic sedative used in the treatment of insomnia.

Antabuse (disulfiram): A drug commonly used in the treatment of alcohol addiction. It works by triggering a series of unpleasant side effects when consumed in combination with alcohol.

Ativan (lorazepam): One of the benziodiazepine drugs. A sedative medication designed for treating seizures and insomnia, but often used as an off-label treatment for anxiety disorders.

Buprenorphine: A semi-synthetic mixed agonist-antagonist opioid drug that is used to treat both chronic pain and opiate addiction.

Campral (acamprosate calcium): A medication used to treat alcohol addiction. The drugs is believed to work by rebalancing the neurochemicals that are disturbed during alcohol abuse, partially by plugging into the brain’s GABA (gamma-Aminobutyric acid) receptors. It is typically given to recovering alcoholics during therapy.

Codeine: A naturally occurring opiate that is used to treat coughing and control low to moderate pain.

Darvocet (acetaminophen and propoxyphene): A synthetic opioid used for pain relief. It was removed from the market in 2007 following numerous reports of fatal overdoses and cardiac arrhythmias.

Dilaudid (hydromorphone): A synthetic morphine derivative used for cough suppression and the treatment of moderate and severe pain.

Fentanyl: An opioid drug that is 100 times stronger than morphine. It is most commonly used as a transdermal patch and given to patients suffering from pain severe enough that no other medications work. It is most often administered to terminal cancer patients.

Hydrocodone: A semi-synthetic codeine derivative prescribed for pain treatment and cough suppression.

Ketamine: An NMDA receptor antagonist drug that is used in human and veterinary medicine as an anesthetic, typically in combination with another drug. It produces a state called “dissociative anesthesia” and can result in hallucinations.

Klonopin (clonazepam): A benzodiazepune drug used to treat epilepsy, anxiety, insomnia, social anxiety, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Librium (chlordiazepoxide): Another benzodiazepine with amnestic, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant properties. It is commonly prescribed for insomnia, severe anxiety and epilepsy. In some cases, it may also be used to control alcohol withdrawal symptoms.

Lorcet and Lortab (hydrocodone and acetaminophen): The same as hydrocodone, but marketed under different names.

Lunesta (eszopiclone): A nonbenzodiazepine drug with hypnotic effects, commonly prescribed for insomnia.

Methadone: A synthetic opioid drug used to control moderate and severe pain. However, it is most commonly prescribed for people who wish to end their dependency on opiate/opioid drugs. For this, it works by suppressing the onset of withdrawal.

Morphine: A natural opiate drug used to treat pain, particularly in cancer patients.

Naltrexone: An opioid antagonist that is used in the treatment of alcohol addiction to curb cravings. It is also used to counteract opioid overdoses by blocking the appropriate receptors in the brain.

Norco (hydrocodone and acetaminophen): Same as hydrocodone.

OxyContin (oxycodone): A semi-synthetic opioid drug designed to treat moderate and severe pain.

Percocet (oxycodone and acetaminophen): Similar to OxyContin, but more often used in the treatment of acute instances of severe pain.

ReVia: Same as naltrexone

Ritalin (methylphenidate): A dopamine reuptake inhibitor and CNS stimulant. It is most commonly used as a treatment for ADHD in both children and adults.

Rohypnol (flunitrazepam): A benzodiazepine most commonly known as “roofies”, the infamous date-rape drug. It is prescribed mainly for insomnia. The side effects include memory loss for the duration of the drug’s action.

Soma (carisoprodol): A skeletal muscle relaxant prescribed to control muscle contractions and pain.

Sonata (zaleplon): A norbenzidiazepine hypnotic sedative used to treat insomnia.

Suboxone and Subutex (buprenorphine/naloxone): A mixed opioid agonist and antagonist used in the treatment of opiate abuse. it is very similar in action to buprenorphine, but also contains naloxone.

Valium (diazepam): A benzodiazepine drug prescribed for the treatment of muscle spasms, anxiety, panic attacks and withdrawal symptoms from alcohol, opioids and benzodiazepines. It may also be used prior to medical procedures as a mild sedative to reduce anxiety and tension.

Vicodin (hydrocodone/acetaminophen): Same as hydrocodone.

Vivitrol: Same as naltrexone.

Xanax (alprazolam): A benzodiazepine drug featuring hypnotic, muscle relaxant, sedative, anxiolytic, antispasmodic, anticonvulsant and amnestic effects. It is widely used to treat panic attacks and anxiety.

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